The price of lithium batteries is mainly composed of three parts: core, protective board and shell. At the same time, due to the power consumption and current of the appliances used, the selection of materials for the connectors between the cores (conventional nickel sheet, formed nickel sheet, copper-nickel composite sheet, cross-connector sheet, etc.) will affect the cost. Different connectors (such as aviation plugs, from more than ten yuan to more than thousand yuan) are also possible. It has a great impact on the cost, and different PACK processes can also affect the cost.
1. Selection of Core:
First, the selection of different material systems will affect the price of lithium batteries. According to the different cathode materials, lithium manganate (3.6V), lithium cobalt (3.7V/3.8V), lithium nickel cobalt manganate (commonly known as ternary, 3.6V), lithium iron phosphate (3.2V), lithium titanate (2.3V/2.4V) and other materials will be used in lithium batteries. The voltage platforms, safety factors, cycle times, energy density ratio and working temperature of the cores with different material systems are different. 。
Second, the prices of different brands of cores will vary greatly, and the overall price gradient can be divided into: special cores (including ultra-low temperature, ultra-high temperature, ultra-high rate, heteromorphic), Japanese (Panasonic, Sanyo, Sony), Korean (Samsung, LG), domestic (domestic is divided into one line (Lishen, Bike, BYD, ATL), two lines, or even five lines, six lines). Material system and different brands of cores, price differences will be very large, and the quality of cores (safety, consistency, stability) of each brand eliminated through the market is basically in direct proportion to the price.
PCM design can be divided into: basic protection, communication, BMS
Basic protection: Basic protection includes over-charge, over-discharge, over-current and short-circuit protection, and can increase over-temperature protection according to product requirements.
Communication: Communication protocols can be divided into I2C, RS485, RS232, CANBUS, HDQ, SMBUS and so on. There is also a simple power display, which can be indicated by a power meter using LED.
BMS: BMS is the first letter combination of BATTERYMANAGEMENTS YSTEM, called battery management system, commonly known as battery nanny or battery steward, mainly for intelligent management and maintenance of each battery unit, to prevent battery from overcharging and overdischarging, prolong battery life and monitor battery status. Its main functions include: real-time monitoring of battery physical parameters; battery state estimation; online diagnosis and warning; charge, discharge and pre-charge control; balance management and thermal management. Secondary systems are mostly used in electric vehicle batteries.
Lithium battery shell design can be divided into: PVC heat seal, plastic, metal
PVC heat seal: What kind of encapsulation form is used outside the battery pack mainly depends on the specific needs of the customers. For the encapsulation form of PVC heat seal, it is generally suitable for the case of a small number of cores in tandem and a lighter overall weight (<2kg). However, for batteries whose overall weight is more than 1 kg, it is necessary to reinforce the bracket between the cores and adopt PVC heat seal after adding glass fibre board protection to the periphery.
Plastic: After using plastic shell, mainly different batteries, the shell involved may need to be molded. The cost of the mould is a large expense. For example, in the early stage of development, the product is not finalized, the hand shell can be proofed (the strength of the hand plate is not as strong as that of the material after the mold opening and finalization). The material and process requirements for the shell (especially with three-proof requirements) are different, too. Influencing cost.
Metal: The metal shell is the same as the plastic shell. There is not much demand for the product before finalization or quantity. It is suggested that sheet metal be used for sample preparation. This is mainly due to the shorter sample delivery time. If the batch is large, it is also recommended to open the mould. For metal shell with waterproof grade requirements, will also greatly affect the cost, and is the special material (such as titanium alloy) metal shell requirements, the cost will be higher.
The cost of lithium batteries is mainly composed of cores, PCM and structural components. In addition, the cost of PACK, aging and management of enterprises should be added. At the same time, the price of lithium batteries will vary greatly due to the technical difficulty of the products, the amount of purchasing, and the requirement of bad rate.
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